The world is filled with chaos: the coffee you drink is a mixture of scattered particles swirling in random motion, ships are thrown to-and-fro by sudden bad weather, and wind blows your bike off course. A recent study demonstrates how this chaos can be reduced into a simple graph that can illustrate when, and how, chaos will strike.
Humans, and many other animals, reflexively increase the volume of their vocalizations in a noisy environment, a phenomenon called the Lombard effect. A new study on geckos, one of the first to examine vocal plasticity in a reptile, found that while geckos do not exhibit the Lombard effect, they do modify their calls in other ways so as to more easily be heard over noise.
A study published in JAMA in April 2017 showed that the previously held belief that the use of antidepressants by pregnant mothers in the first trimester leads to adverse effects may be exaggerated.